Monday, August 21, 2017

Maximum coverage -- 80% totality

p.s. in case you were wondering, an eclipse is one thing JEWS DON'T HAVE A SPECIFIC BLESSING FOR!  Thank you  but that's amazing!

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, August 18, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- Words

The second pillar of DH is that JEDP all have different styles and language. This, says DH, is because having been created at different times, they used different words. It’s called language layering; because the words purportedly reflect foreign influences, it is also called mischsprache. When you find a word that did not exist before the Babylonian Captivity, the text you find it in must belong to P.
But how do you prove that it didn’t exist before the Babylonian captivity?
This goes back a long time to my discussion about archaeological evidence. Not only don’t we have archaeological evidence of all the texts produced in Hebrew, once it had its own writing system, we only have two up until the time of Qumran. One is from the 800s BCE; the other is from right before the Babylonian Captivity. Only the latter reproduces text known from Torah.
That’s not enough to prove that some words didn’t exist before the Babylonian Captivity. It’s barely enough to prove that some words did exist before the Babylonian Captivity. It’s the same concept I talked about in the last section about dictionaries of classical Greek not having words for certain things.
What does the mischsprache concept say and how does it compare to the 21st century understanding of Semitic languages, which I referred to in the previous section of the blog?
One important work on the mischsprache concept for Hebrew, is Bauer and Leander’s book from 1922. Bauer and Leander give a graphic which shows shows Hebrew and Akkadian on one side as siblings, and Phoenician on another side with Aramaic and Arabic as its siblings, depicted as younger cousins of Akkadian and Hebrew.
B&L claimed that the earliest evidence of a separate language for Jews is Mishnah when it is in pre-Captivity Tannakh. Kings II 18:26 clearly indicates that there was a Jewish language separate from Aramaic, but it is called yehudit, “Jewish”; Bauer and Leander were looking for the word ivrit, “Hebrew.” They were under the mistaken impression that the Hapiru were the ancestors of the Jews, an issue settled late in the 20th century.
B&L considered Arabia the home of the Semitic languages and then asked how the Semitic languages could have gotten there from the north. Get there from what place exactly? They rejected Mesopotamia as the source.
B&L didn’t realize that after the Gutians took over in Mesopotamia, the west was left to its own devices for centuries, during which both Canaanite and Hebrew developed.
Modern genetics tells the story. The Semitic languages originated in northeastern Anatolia between the Caucasus and Lake Van. This happened between 5000 and 3500 BCE. Archaeology shows that Akkadian used the Sumerian writing system, which developed by 3500 BCE. The oldest surviving Akkadian texts appeared by 2600 BCE and so (cultura non facit saltus) the Akkadian language existed for centuries before that. After 2350 BCE, when Naram-Sin’s homeland was conquered by the Indo-European Gutians, Semitic speakers in the west went their own way and developed Ugaritic, Canaanitic, Hebrew, and Aramaic.
Since the language pillar of DH is based on outdated information, it can’t serve as evidence that DH is true, more evidence that DH is a Linda problem.
The DH argument about words not existing at a given point in time, is only a version of the argument from silence which, as you know, is false unless you can show you have a complete dataset. So here is our first fallacy, and since it is used to claim that the four documents exist at all, the probability that DH is true, is zero.
There is one chance to rehabilitate this pillar and I’ll discuss it next week.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, August 17, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- raqia

Genesis 1:6
ו וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם:
Translation:     Gd said Let there be a raqia in the midst of the water so as to let it be setting a division between water and water.
Notice that I didn’t translate raqia. The usual translation is “firmament” which is wrong. Raqia has the root resh qof ayin and the verb with the same root is in Exodus 39:3 which describes hammering pure gold very thin and then cutting thin strips from it, which are woven with colored thread to make the efod. In Numbers 17:4; Elazar hammers flat the copper censers that were not consumed with their owners, and uses the plates as a covering for the ark.
“Firmament” comes from the Septuagint which uses the Greek stereoma for raqia. Stereoma means a hard body. It suits the Aristotelian concept that above earth is a tightly fitted hollow ball which is the sphere of the moon, the sphere of the sun being outside of that, and then five more spheres for the ancient visible planets.
The raqia is discussed in Babylonian Talmud, Passover 94a, as being 1000 parasangs thick (1277 kilometers), and below that Passover 94b says earth is 182,500 parasangs or 233 thousand kilometers below it. What’s more, Chagigah 13a (also in Babylonian Talmud) says that there are seven raqias, all the same thickness (1000 parasangs) and there is a distance of 1000 parasangs between each raqia. The raqia is a relatively thin covering over whatever is beneath it.  What is in that 1000 parasangs of distance between each raqia, nobody discusses.
That is probably related to Mishnah Chagigah 2:1 (Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 11b) which says “There are four things that if a man thinks about them, it would be better if he had never been born: what is above; what is below; what is before; and what is after.” Look: Judaism has 613 commandments. It’s hard to obey them all. If you haven’t done that, it doesn’t matter what you think about esoteric things like the seven raqiot, or what holds the world up (pre-Newton), how the universe began (pre-Einstein), or how it will end.
And if you do spend time on those things, you always get to a point where you run out of answers. Then you either stop talking, or you start making things up. You’re not Gd. Only Gd knows the truth about those things. People will either ignore you because they know you don’t know, or they’ll believe you. If they believe you, you become “somebody putting a stumbling block before the blind”. And that right there violates one of the 613 commandments.
That’s not anti-science. Science admits it doesn’t know everything. That’s why scientists still have work to do. Judaism is not anti-science. It says that to be a Jew you have to fulfill the 613 commandments. You can do that and still be a scientist. But if you’re not a scientist and you don’t study science so that you know where science ends and the unknown begins, you should be going and fulfilling commandments.
Why didn’t Septuagint use a better word? I don’t know. I’ve done some research among experts who wrote about the Greek of the Septuagint (see the Fact-Checking bibliography for Deissman, for example) and the conclusion I’m reaching is that the Septuagint was done, not by religious Jews for their own purposes, but by political hacks so that the first two Ptolemies would have the Jews on their side if they were attacked by Seleucus, who got control of Syria after Alexander died. And when that attack did come, the Jews did support Egypt while the Samaritans, whom the Ptolemies ignored, helped Seleucus.
Commentators down through the ages have said what a bad translation Septuagint was. They include ben Sirach, a century later; Jerome, six centuries later; the Geneva translators and King James I of England, twelve centuries after Jerome; and most recently, the American council of classical Bishops whose newly authorized translation changes Isaiah 7:14 so that it no longer reflects what Septuagint says.

There are other words in Torah that I think should not be translated so as to emphasize that they mean what they mean and have been mis-translated, and I discuss them in Narrating the Torah which is still in preparation.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Knitting -- more lace lessons learned

Number one is the reason why traditional Shetland knitters do their lace shawls in sections -- edging, border, center -- and then graft them together.


The Williamson stole pattern says this several times, including at the very start where they tell you to use the most delicate lace yarn possible.  The same is true for the famous wedding ring shawls, which are very large but knitted in a very delicate yarn which makes them able to go through a wedding ring.

By the time I finished adding the edging to the ocean wave lace, I had put on a couple of pounds of muscle in my arms from turning it to attach the edging instead of knitting it separately and grafting it on.

OK not seriously but you get my drift.

Second, if you are going to design a shawl, you must do math. The piece looks higgledy piggledy because it is. If I intended it for a gift or for show, it would disappoint whoever I gave it to or probably not get accepted by the show jury.

The math will also help you buy the right amount of yarn.  It's better to have leftovers that you can use up in something else, than to fall short, have to buy something with a different dye lot, and forget where you are in the pattern while you wait for delivery. Here's a website that can help you figure out how much yarn to buy in different weights for a given number of stitches needed. It's in both metric and "English"  measurements -- which England doesn't use any more but the U.S. still does more than two centuries after our revolution. Go figure. No, wait, with this you WON'T have to go figure for  yourself. Agh, I've got a headache. Numbers always do that to me.

The third lesson learned is, when you have never knitted lace before, it's a GOOD thing to start with worsted, even though it's heavy.  That's because unless you have really really good control of your tension, you will constantly be breaking your fingering weight or lace weight yarn. One knitter said this straight out on her website.

So although I started with worsted weight leftover yarn, I was able to graduate to sport weight leftover yarn, and then to DK, and only then did I work with fingering yarn. I learned how to knit loosely enough so that k3tog wasn't a hassle, but not so loosely that the work looked like a fishing net instead of a piece of fabric.

Work up to it and ignore anybody who points out your mistakes. Everybody makes mistakes when they're still learning. The smart people aren't afraid of mistakes because they aren't afraid of learning something from them.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, August 11, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- is it an axiom or not?

The problem with DH is the pillar of Gd’s Name. DH says that elohim is Gd’s name in the E document. That means that when you find text that uses elohim you can assign it to E. It came from E. It got into its current position because the editor took that text from E and put it at its current position.
But in the 1970s CE, one scholar decided that use of elohim in the first aliyah of Genesis does not mark it as E. It is P. Why?
Because he said that its discussion of Shabbat could not have occurred until the Babylonian captivity with invention of the P text.
That conflicts with material in Amos and Hoshea. Both refer to Shabbat, and both of them died more than a century before the Babylonian captivity. Wellhausen states that it doesn’t matter what Amos and Hoshea said.
It matters a lot, unless there is evidence that Amos and Hoshea lived during or after the Babylonian Captivity, not centuries before it, or that the material attributed to them was invented during or after the Babylonian Captivity, not before it. In fact Sayce’s claim that Shabbat was a late invention was a misinterpretation of the evidence, as you’ll remember if you’ve been following this blog from the start.
In the last section I said that Biblical Hebrew had to be learned on the street because there were no grammar books.  It means that Amos and Hoshea do matter, because Amos the cowherd uses the same Biblical Hebrew grammar as the Torah.
Wellhausen didn’t have didn’t have 21st century evidence about Semitic languages in general or Biblical Hebrew in particular. He was teaching at the time that Hermann Strack was publishing the Porta Linguarum Orientalium series with Delitzsch’s work on Assyrian. But that doesn’t mean Wellhausen read anything in either of Strack’s series (the other was Clavis Linguarum Semiticarum). He also didn’t have Sayce’s claims to mislead him; he had stopped publishing by that time.
If the writer from the 1970s did rely on Sayce, he doesn’t cite to him. He simply argued: P dates to the Captivity, it’s a work of ritual, so it must be the sole source of Shabbat, so the creation story must date to the Captivity.
You can see that this is another conjunction, and that the probability of each term is less than one. The conflict with the timing of Amos and Hoshea, and with the axiom of “elohim is from E”, suggests that its combined probability is low.
I’ll give more evidence later about problems with the “names of Gd” pillar. For now, there's more to say about the language issue in DH.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, August 10, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- hifil progressive

Genesis 1:6
ו וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם:
Transliteration: Va-yomer elohim y’hi raqia b’tokh ha-maim v’yhi mavdil ben maim la-maim.
Translation:     Gd said Let there be a raqia in the midst of the water so as to let it be setting a division between water and water.
Letters in this lesson:
Vocabulary in this lesson:
in the midst of, among
You should recognize the root of the last word in the vocabulary; you’ve seen it before. This is the progressive aspect of the verb you saw as yavdel before, but in a real hifil. Now you can see how the piel progressive I showed you before differs from the hifil. They use all the same suffixes for gender and number. So try writing out the progressive of “divide” for yourself.
Now notice that we have bein again, but not bein…u-vein.  This time it’s bein X l’X. Previously we divided two different nouns. Now we’re dividing between the same noun twice. We’ll find out why when we get to the next verse.
We have y’hi again, “let X exist” but then we have a new form.
Viyhi is neither a certainty epistemic nor a jussive with a predicate noun. It has a predicate gerundive in the progressive aspect.
The progressive aspect here is taking on the job of a substantive via this gerundive usage; there are six other uses of vihi in Torah and all of them are followed by a noun.
I also want you to notice the dagesh in the dalet of mavdil. Here’s the syllabification: mav-dil. Because the first syllable is closed by a consonant, the dalet opening the next syllable has to take dagesh.
But this is not the same thing as verbal gemination. It’s a requirement of syllabification.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, August 4, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- DH pillars

Before your brain fills up and spills over, I’d better give you the basic scheme for DH.  The basis is what Umberto Cassuto called the “five pillars”.  These are the classes of criteria that DH set up to assign material to the four documents.
The pillars are: Name of Gd used in the material; language and style; unified viewpoint including theology and ethics; repetitions; contradictions; and composites or conflations of material.
DH has produced descriptions of each putative source document.
J or Jahwist is a document invented in writing in the monotheistic southern kingdom between 800 and 700 BCE.  It uses the Tetragrammaton for Gd’s name.  Two hundred years after the First Temple was built, this culture still had a primitive and practical but not a legal viewpoint (Wellhausen’s phrase “Jehovistic law” refers to D, AFAICT: to him, J is “Jehovistic history”), and it expressed this viewpoint unemotionally.
E or Elohist is a document invented in the pagan northern kingdom in writing between 800 and 700 BCE.  It uses elohim for Gd’s name.  It was written and brought south in a period of about 70 years that ended with the Assyrian invasion of the north.  It had a more refined theological viewpoint than J and used more emotional expressions.
D or Deuteronomist is a document invented in the southern kingdom between 650 and 625 BCE, after the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom.  It is related to the reforms centering around the scroll found in the temple and interpreted by the prophetess Huldah.  It contributed to Numbers and Deuteronomy.
P or Priestly is a document invented by Jews between 525 and 425 BCE, that is, during or after the Babylonian Captivity.  It covers all of Leviticus and part of Numbers and Genesis and served priestly didactic needs.
Furthermore, DH claims that each of these documents had a complete and completely different account of Jewish history that was completely consistent with its viewpoint. 
The first combination was JE.  JED came later and P was added on last.  Or rather, not added on but edited in. 
The editing preserved the original viewpoints, the styles of writing such as emotional or unemotional, but erased all traces of the fact that chapters, verses, and parts of verses came from different documents.  So for centuries people went along studying Torah thinking it was a whole, seamless or not, until starting in the 1700s and mostly in the 1800s CE, some clever scholars winkled out the original scheme.
Notice that the descriptions above are irrelevant to which steps happened in what order to get to JEDP. They only specify the timing prior to which nothing existed. E could have laid around in somebody’s back room until the Captivity and then been scooped up in a rush to, say, take it to Egypt with Barukh and Yirmiyahu. That’s like saying “Linda is 31”; DH is a true Linda problem.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, August 3, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- confusing labels

Genesis 1:5
ה וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד:
Translation:     Gd named the light day and the darkness He named night; there must have been evening, there must have been morning, one day.
Last point, I promise.
Notice the l’, la-or, v’la-choshekh.
This is a preposition, which is usually translated “to” and therefore might be labeled “dative”. BUT in some contexts it means “for” which in most languages takes the genitive.
This is one of those reasons why BH should be treated stand-alone, not in terms of labels that work with other languages.  You can’t think of l’ as a dative preposition without forgetting that it also has genitive meaning. 
What’s more, l’ doesn’t just mean “to” as an indirect object. It also means “in order to, for the sake of, for the purpose of, with the result of.” In Arabic – and, coincidentally, in Classical Greek – such a structure uses a gerundive. Nevertheless, western grammarians have slapped on the Arabic structure the name “subjunctive”, which probably calls up all kinds of horrors in your memory if you have ever studied Latin or French. I know it sends a cold chill down my back.
If you are thinking about this, you are saying to yourself, but “to” plus a verb is an infinitive. It might be an infinitive in Latin or French, but it’s not in BH, or in Arabic, and the verb form in Classical Greek is not the same as the “infinitive” in that language.
So stop thinking about BH grammar in terms of what you were taught when you studied other languages, especially non-Semitic languages. In Semitic languages, it’s different, and in BH, it’s even more different.
BUT make sure to notice the qamats under the lamed. That means it’s “the light”, not just “light”. In the following word, it’s a patach. Hebrew prepositions that can combine with (“agglutinate to”) the substantive can take a qamats or patach to indicate that the word they are attached to a definite noun, “the” whatever. Also notice that the qamats is with alef and the patach is with chet.
While the alef and chet are both gutturals, the chet has a sound of its own, so it can take the short vowel patach. The alef doesn’t. The “a” has to cover both the lamed and the alef. So it’s a qamats, a long “a”.  I said some time back that the definite article can take either one of these vowels; now I’ve told you why I think that is.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, July 28, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- DH's Conjunction Fallacy

The steps in DH that get to JE are all required and that makes this description a conjunction. The idea that DH is true is based on the Conjunction Fallacy. You might know about this fallacy if you know about the Linda problem, which you can find all over the web. The most common description is this:
“Linda is 31 years old, yadda yadda yadda. Which is more probable?
1. Linda is a bank teller.
2. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.”
Most people pick the wrong answer, #2, the conjunction. Why is it wrong?
There are two terms in answer 2; let’s call them “bank teller” and “feminist”. Each of them has a probability of being true, let’s say X and Y.
Nothing in the description has probative value for either term, that’s why I “yadda’d” it. Since there’s no evidence either way, X and Y are between 0 and 1.
The probability of answer 1 which has only term “bank teller” is therefore X. But the probability of answer 2 is X times Y. Because  X and Y are both between 0 and 1, their product is lower than either one. Also, whichever of X or Y is less, the probability of answer 2 is less than that.
The subject doesn’t have to be Linda; it can be sports, foreign affairs, or anything else under the sun. In every case, most people pick the conjunction as more probable, and they are wrong. The only way to make them pick the other choice, is basically to give them a course in probability calculations, and even then some of them will pick the conjunction.
Most disciplines consist of conjunctions. Why are they not conjunction fallacies? Because their descriptions always contain evidence of the truth of their claims. They use observations, experiments, and mathematics to demonstrate the probability that their conclusions are true.
They don’t make guesses, they calculate what statements are more accurate to make. They make predictions that are borne out in experiment or observation. If not, people are forced to rethink things, sometimes leading to new discoveries. As new information turns up or new concepts appear, they refine their statements to be more accurate.
They tend to support each other, either around the edges or because information from one can be directly inserted into another. Use of radioactive decay known from physics, to provide dates for archaeology, is an example of the first situation; chemistry incorporating the findings of quantum mechanics in physics is an example of the latter.
And their results have turned out to be useful, time after time. The physics that tells geologists that the world is about 4.5 billion years old, helps doctors save the lives of cancer patients. The chemistry that shows how DNA is the fuel of evolution, also helps correct genetic diseases.
I’m about to show you what the difference is between the conjunctions that are the sciences, and the conjunction fallacy that is DH.
For my special invitees, you have studied DH and know where the fallacies and bad facts lie. I’d be flattered if you stuck around for more of my offbeat perspective, or at least checked in at the end of each month to see what else I posted since your last visit.
For the rest of you, have a blast! I did.
(I had to use Jan Gullberg’s book Mathematics to work out the math of the probabilities; I also used Gary Curtis’ Fallacy Files website. If I have messed this up, don’t blame them; it’s completely my fault.)
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, July 27, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- nuance of certainty epistemic

Genesis 1:5
ה וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד:
Translation:       Gd named the light day and the darkness He named night; there must have been evening, there must have been morning, one day.
I have a two-fer this time, grammar and a midrash.
You can now sit back and absorb the certainty epistemics at the end of the verse.  We know there was evening because the creation story starts off with darkness; we know there was morning which occurred when the light was separated from the dark.
And it has been so ever since.  We have the evidence all through our lives that this happened because it still happens every day. 
In Jewish culture, a new calendar day starts when the first three stars appear at night, or the time rolls around when they would do so.  It ends with the next appearance of three stars.
There were no stars at the point we have reached in the creation story but, as when there is a cloudy night, that doesn’t matter because it got light after the darkness so we know that a time-keeping day is proceeding.
This nuance of the certainty epistemic – that something perceptible persists -- is crucial to a large number of verses in Exodus and afterward and I will show why in more detailed lessons after we get through this introductory work.
And now the midrash:  why does it say “one day” not “first day”?  The rabbis asked this centuries ago and came up with a number of theologically appropriate reasons.

Here’s mine.  One of the things that happens because of narrative past, is that you have narrative tension.  From your point of view, these things are already in the past.  But from the point of view of the characters living through these times, nothing is over until the narrative is over. 
If the narrator says “first day”, it implies a second day.  You only have a “first” if you have a second.  By saying “one day”, the narrator leaves it open that something will happen that will change everything.  Gd could return everything to its primordial chaos.  Narrative tension is preserved.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Mendel Beilis Trial -- Day 30

R. Yosef Gabriel Bechhofer did it to me again.

I've been listening to his audio lectures on Jerusalem Talmud.

Today I got to a lesson on Maaser Sheni, pages 32 and 33.

He discussed something on that page which I remembered was brought up in the Beilis trial.

So I have replaced the PDF of the transcript and re-linked to it from the menu and from the summary for that day.

It's footnote 35 to item 212 in Zamyslovsky's closing argument od day 30.

So you see,  as long as I'm learning, I'm not done with making the transcript  and its supporting info as accurate as I can get it.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Knitting -- lace, Da Puzzle from Unst

Unst Island has produced a number of unique Shetland lace motifs, and Da Puzzle is one of them.

One blogger found a reference to it in a notice about an exhibition.

Turns out this is one of the motifs in Elizabeth Lovick's Magic of Shetland Knitting and snaps have been posted, I won't say where. But the snaps show the swatch and chart, no stitch counts.

So here was an excellent chance to use that symbols page I found

and transcribe the pattern for those who, like me, are absolute beginners at reading charts.

I learned a new secret about lace knitting.  It's like matrix math.

I never could get matrix math until I found a web site that showed me that you can't just look at the matrix and get the answer. You have to work it step by step.

So with lace knitting, at least until you get familiar with the pattern, here's my suggestion. Once you've placed your markers for the first row of the pattern and you've turned it, before you start working on the new row, see how many stitches there are up to the next marker. If it's not as many as the repeat is supposed to be, you messed up the previous row for that repeat. Turn it BACK around, undo that repeat, and find out where your mistake was. Fix it, turn the work and NOW work that repeat on the other side.

It will slow you down early on but it will keep you from working for hours and rows and suddenly finding oh crap, it's not working out because of a mistake WAY BACK THERE!  It will also let you catch dropped stitches early instead of late.

The other lesson I learned from this pattern is WE ARE ALL HUMAN and even people who publish on a subject can make crucial mistakes. Which I have ranted about on the Fact-Checking blog.

Anyway, there was a mistake in Lovick's pattern that made rows 2 and 6 come out wrong. Once I got the courage to say it was wrong, I realized how it had to be and then I was OK. There's a quote in Tolstoy's Anna Karenina that makes a similar point. Never be afraid of saying "I don't care what you say, this doesn't work out right."

I also FINALLY used "safety lines" working this pattern. It's so complex that if you accidentally drop stitches, you have to go back  to the beginning and start over. I used two lengths of yarn in a contrasting color, one actively inserted through the row, one on the tapestry needle until I got to the next row I wanted to anchor. You have your choice of anchoring each pattern repeat in the row, or waiting until you finish and then anchoring the whole row. Just be careful to put the needle THROUGH the loops and not split the yarn.

And last, there's something in this pattern I never saw before, a double yarn over. Well, making it is easy, but when you do the next round or row, how the heck do you work it? I looked at a bunch of videos and picked this one as the best demonstration.

Basically, you work the first one in the same stitch as the rest of the row (K or P) and the second one the opposite stitch (P or K).

Joanne'sWeb posted a diagram for an edging from a Vogue pattern, to show you how to copy a chart.

When I first saw it, I asked "Joanne" how to take it around a corner.  Thanks to that other video I was able to do it.

This is not a Shetland edging. But I used one Shetland edging on two different pieces and I wanted something different.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, July 21, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- predicting the product

So we’ve established that the probability that DH is true relies on the probability of every claim it makes, for all the claims that are required to say what DH wants to say about Torah.
We identified that the calculation of the final probability is the product of the probability of every single one of these required claims. We can’t add them because addition is the calculation for options.
We can’t go above 1.  The value of 1 represents 100% probability or truth, which would mean there is observational evidence or hard physical examples of the four documents as well as of the interim products in their merger.
I know you’re saying that even if each probability isn’t 1, it could be greater than zero.
Sure, it could.  All the probabilities in the DH table are between zero (false) and one (true) if you can’t disprove them and there is no external evidence that any of them happened.
You have to multiply them.  What do you get?  Go back to your grade school arithmetic.  The product of fractions less than one is less than each of the fractions.  0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25; 0.9 x 0.9 = 0.81.
The probability of two dice turning up any given combination is 0.167 x 0.167 = 0.028 or a little less than 1 in 30 instead of 1 in 6.
The probability that a sequence of required steps will ALL happen is less than the probability of the least probable step.
Once we know the probability for each of the steps, whichever of the probabilities is SMALLEST is the most that the probability can be for DH. 
The smallest value out of all of them is the highest value you can get, and after you multiply, the result will be smaller than that.
And if any claims in DH are based on fallacies, they automatically become false, and the probability of every required step based on them is zero; when you multiply anything by zero you get zero.
Now notice that even if you start with optional steps for any part of the history, you can’t get to JEDP without identifying a path of required steps to each of the documents and their combination.
No matter how you get to JEDP, you have to do some multiplication.
I’ll  finish  up next week.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, July 20, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- "call, give a name"

Genesis 1:5
ה וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד:
Transliteration: Va-yiqra elohim la-or yom v’la-choshekh qara lailah va-y’hi-erev va-y’hi-voqer yom echad.
Translation:     Gd named the light day and the darkness He named night; there was evening and there was morning one day.
Vocabulary in this lesson:
call (to), call by name, name
Indirect object preposition, genitive preposition, possessive
We have another lamed alef verb in this verse, and we have it in narrative imperfect.  Here’s the qal imperfect aspect, on which the narrative imperfect is built.  Memorize this; you will see it again.
BUT notice that when He names the darkness, it’s perfect aspect.  Why?
The perfect aspect here closes off this episode in the creation story.  Something else is going to happen after this, nothing to do with light at all.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Garden -- feeding the birds & bees

I planted lots of things in my garden and fostered others to attract birds and feed bees.

This thing with the yellow flowers, I planted years ago. I think the seed packet said Korean Dill which certainly tracks with the leaves, but I can't find new seeds for it. It was open-pollinated and not only survived but self-sowed.

I planted it for the lacewings because they destroy harmful insects. But this month the bees are all over it and that is a Good Thing.

This is chicory. I planted it from open-pollinated seed some  years after the dill.
The goldfinches mob it and tear the petals off to get at the green seeds, but enough survived to keep the plant going.

This is something you probably have never seen because you prune your euonymus in summer instead of at the end of winter like you should. The little four-petal yellow-green things are the flowers.
If you leave your euonymus alone next summer, you will get these and they will develop into pretty pink berries that are favorites of mockingbirds. This particular bush is shaded all year long and its berries don't ripen well. Luckily I got my mockingbird to take raisins last winter and he has developed an addiction to them.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Friday, July 14, 2017

Fact-Checking the Torah -- the 8 step program

So let’s look at the math. What is the equation for the probability that all those steps happened?
“All” ought to be a sum, right? A total? Add up the probability of each step and you should know how likely it is that JE existed, right?
A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 + A6 + A7 + A8 = Σ = probability.
When you’re evaluating a set of proposals for their combined truth, a truth table can be useful. If you’re adding them up, the truth table you have to use is this.
A1       A2       A1+A2
T          T          T
F          T          T
T          F          T
F          F          F
Some of you just had an “a-ha” moment. You know that this is a truth table for an OR function in logic. “Or” means alternatives. If you want to calculate the probability of DH this way, all of the steps have to be options. Producing JEDP went through one of those steps to the exclusion of the others.
Notice that, since the total probability can’t be greater than 1 (100%), the total is split up among the options, none of which has a probability of 1 (100%). You have two options flipping a coin; each of them has a 50% probability. If you have a die, each of the six sides has a 16.7% probability of coming up on any given throw. If you’re going to calculate the probability of JE this way, each of the 8 steps has to be an option. Once you pick one of the options, you’re done. Since none of the optional steps has a probability of 1 (100%), the probability of DH being true is limited to something below absolute fact.
But if those steps are all required, you need a different truth table.
A1       A2       A1 AND A2
T          T          T
F          T          F
T          F          F
F          F          F
If you replace the letters with “0” for F and “1” for T, you will see what is happening here.  The zeroes in the rightmost column reflect a multiplication, not an addition; anything multiplied by 0 is 0. If a required step is false, and you have to multiply it by another required step, it doesn’t matter if the “other” step actually happened. The probability of both steps happening is 0, or No, or False, because one of them didn’t happen.

You can estimate what the product will be if you know a few things about math.
© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved

Thursday, July 13, 2017

21st Century Bible Hebrew -- Genesis 1:5 -- dagesh 2

Genesis 1:5
ה וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד:
Transliteration: Va-yiqra elohim la-or yom v’la-choshekh qara lailah va-y’hi-erev va-y’hi-voqer yom echad.
Translation:     Gd named the light day and the darkness He named night; there was evening and there was morning one day.
Letters in this lesson: ק
Vocabulary in this lesson:
call (to), call by name, name
Indirect object preposition, genitive preposition, possessive
Notice that in the first word, after va with the patach, the yod takes dagesh. Also notice that toward the end of the verse, after va-y’hi, it’s not boqer, it’s voqer. But notice after the other y’hi, there’s no dagesh in the ayin. Ayin is a letter that never takes dagesh. (What are the others?) Also notice that after voqer, the yod in yom does NOT take dagesh. The word before the yod ended in a resh, not a vowel as at the start of the verse. Are you starting to see a pattern?
The word, parsed to produce CVC or CV syllables, is vay-yiq-ra.
Then you have vay-hi-vo-qer.
And in the third case, listening to the audio, I can hear vay-hi-[gh]e-rev.
At the start of words, ayin has a slight [gh] sound which probably led to calling it a glottal stop, and which supports its not taking dagesh by letting ayin serve as the consonant BH requires at the start of a syllable. You can hear it in audio files that I’ll give you a link  to later.
It probably also led to the name “Gomorrah”. In BH, this name starts with ayin. When the Septuagint translators heard it, they matched it to the Greek gamma which has a somewhat similar sound. And the rest is history.

© Patricia Jo Heil, 2013-2018 All Rights  Reserved